Broadly speaking, inference on the Semantic Web can be characterized by discovering new relationships. On the Semantic Web, data is modeled as a set of (named) relationships between resources. “Inference” means that automatic procedures can generate new relationships based on the data and based on some additional information in the form of a vocabulary, e.g., a set of rules. Whether the new relationships are explicitly added to the set of data, or are returned at query time, is an implementation issue.
On the Semantic Web, the source of such extra information can be defined via vocabularies or rule sets. Both of these approaches draw upon knowledge representation techniques. In general, ontologies concentrate on classification methods, putting an emphasis on defining 'classes', 'subclasses', on how individual resources can be associated to such classes, and characterizing the relationships among classes and their instances. Rules, on the other hand, concentrate on defining a general mechanism on discovering and generating new relationships based on existing ones, much like logic programs, like Prolog, do. In the family of Semantic Web related W3C Recommendations RDFS, OWL, or SKOS are the tools of choice to define ontologies, whereas RIF has been developed to cover rule based approaches.
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